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A1C is a blood test that measures a person's average blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months. It is commonly used to diagnose and manage diabetes and can be impacted by factors such as blood sugar control, red blood cell lifespan, anemia, kidney disease, medications, and more.

AIP diet

The AIP diet (Autoimmune Protocol diet) is an elimination diet that aims to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms for people with autoimmune conditions. It involves removing certain foods from the diet, such as grains, legumes, dairy, and processed foods, and emphasizing nutrient-dense whole foods to support gut health and reduce inflammation.

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping individuals to accept their thoughts and feelings, clarify their values, and engage in actions that are meaningful and fulfilling. ACT has been shown to be effective in treating a range of mental health conditions, including eating disorders, body image concerns, and chronic dieting.

Acute inpatient unit

The purpose of an acute inpatient unit (AIU) is to provide immediate and intense medical attention for patients facing acute medical conditions, and nutrition plays a critical role in the care provided by the AIU. The AIU is also relevant to the treatment of eating disorders as it provides a comprehensive treatment plan, including medical monitoring, therapy, and nutritionally balanced meals, to help patients stabilize their health and begin their recovery journey.


Addiction is a chronic brain disorder characterized by compulsive activity or substance-seeking behavior. Treatment for addiction typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. A dietitian can play a crucial role in helping individuals overcome food-related addiction.


Alcohol is a beverage produced by the fermentation of grains, fruits, or vegetables, and excessive consumption can negatively impact nutrition by providing empty calories, impairing nutrient absorption, and disrupting nutrient metabolism.

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by persistent restriction of energy intake, intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted body image. Treatment typically involves a combination of medical and psychological interventions, including nutritional support, psychotherapy, and family-based therapy, to address the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder and promote recovery.

Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)

Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a type of eating disorder characterized by avoidance or restriction of certain foods. Treatment typically involves therapy, nutrition education, and exposure to a variety of foods, along with possibly medications to manage related conditions such as anxiety or depression.

Binge-eating disorder

Binge eating disorder is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive eating, feelings of loss of control during eating, guilt, shame and distress after binging, rapid weight fluctuations, eating when not physically hungry, and avoiding social situations related to food.

Blood sugar

Blood sugar levels refer to the amount of glucose present in the bloodstream, which is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. Maintaining healthy blood sugar levels is important for overall health, and imbalances can lead to health complications, particularly in people with diabetes.

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by difficulties in regulating emotions, unstable relationships, self-image, and impulsive behavior. Individuals with BPD may experience intense mood swings, fear of abandonment, engage in impulsive behaviors, and struggle with maintaining stable relationships.

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise. The condition often involves a distorted body image, feelings of shame and guilt, and can lead to serious physical and mental health complications.


Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on the interconnection of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. CBT aims to help individuals identify and modify negative thought patterns, and to develop more positive and realistic thoughts and coping skills, leading to a reduction in psychological distress.


Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in various plant sources, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans, and kola nuts. It can have benefits such as improved alertness and physical performance, but excessive consumption can have negative effects on health, including insomnia, jitteriness, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. It causes damage to the lining of the small intestine, leading to inflammation and malabsorption of nutrients, and can result in a wide range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss, and fatigue.


Chronic typically refers to a medical condition or illness that persists over a long period of time, often for three months or more. These conditions are often ongoing and can significantly impact a person's quality of life, requiring ongoing medical management and support.

Clinical psychologist

Clinical psychologists have special training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. They are the type of psychologist you are most likely to see for help with a mental health issue.


A clinician is a healthcare professional who provides direct patient care, such as diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness or disease. Clinicians can be physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, or other healthcare professionals who work in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, and private practices.


To do with thinking, learning and remembering.


Compulsion is a psychological condition that causes a person to feel a strong, irresistible urge to perform certain behaviors or rituals. These compulsive behaviors can interfere with a person's daily life and functioning and may be related to anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, or other mental health conditions.


Constipation is a condition where a person experiences difficulty or infrequent bowel movements, often resulting in hard and dry stools that are difficult to pass. It can be caused by various factors, including a low-fiber diet, lack of physical activity, certain medications, and medical conditions, and can be managed through dietary changes, increased physical activity, and medications.

Crohn’s disease

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract. It is believed to be an autoimmune disorder that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.


DSM stands for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," which is a widely used guidebook for mental health professionals in diagnosing psychiatric disorders. Although the DSM primarily focuses on classifying mental disorders, some eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are included and can impact a person's nutritional status.


Depression is a mental health condition that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in activities that one used to enjoy. It can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.


Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which the body cannot regulate blood sugar levels properly, leading to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This can cause various health complications over time, including damage to the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and cardiovascular system.


A diagnosis is the process of identifying a specific disease or medical condition based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and any diagnostic tests or procedures. It is a critical step in guiding treatment decisions and determining the prognosis for the patient.


Diarrhea is a condition characterized by loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than usual. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food intolerances, and chronic digestive disorders, and can often be managed through rehydration, diet changes, and medications.


Dysbiosis refers to an imbalance or disruption in the normal composition of microorganisms that inhabit a particular environment, such as the human gut. This imbalance can contribute to a variety of health issues, including digestive issues, allergies, autoimmune disorders, mood disorders, weight gain, and nutrient deficiencies.

Eating disorder

Eating disorders are a group of conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of eating behavior and negative attitudes towards one's body weight and shape. The most common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders, and they can have serious physical and psychological consequences. Effective treatments typically involve a combination of therapy, medical monitoring, and support from a dietitian.

Exercise physiologist

An Exercise Physiologist is a health professional who specializes in the study of human movement and the physiological responses to physical activity. They design and implement exercise programs, conduct fitness assessments, educate on the importance of physical activity, and work with individuals of all ages and fitness levels to improve their health and well-being through exercise and physical activity.

Exposure and response prevention therapy (ERP)

Exposure and Response Prevention Therapy (ERP) is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that is used to treat anxiety disorders, particularly Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). ERP involves gradually exposing a person to situations or objects that trigger their anxiety or compulsive behaviors while preventing them from engaging in the compulsive behaviors or rituals that they typically use to reduce their anxiety.


What is FODMAP? FODMAP stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, which are short-chain carbohydrates (sugars) that the small intestine absorbs poorly. The FODMAP diet is a dietary approach that aims to reduce the intake of these types of carbohydrates.


Fiber is a type of carbohydrate found in plant-based foods that the human body cannot digest or absorb. It comes in two main types: soluble and insoluble, and eating a diet that is high in fiber can have many health benefits, such as improving digestion, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke, and helping with weight management.


GERD stands for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, which is a chronic condition where stomach acid and digestive enzymes flow back into the esophagus, causing irritation and inflammation. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, regurgitation, difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and a chronic cough.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health condition characterized by excessive, persistent, and uncontrollable worrying about a wide range of everyday situations and events, often with no obvious cause. GAD can significantly interfere with daily functioning and can lead to social isolation and depression, but it can be effectively treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy and affects women who have never had diabetes before. It is caused by hormones produced during pregnancy that interfere with the body's ability to use insulin effectively, leading to high blood sugar levels that can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.

Gut Health

Gut health refers to the overall well-being of the digestive system and is crucial for proper digestion, absorption of nutrients, and a strong immune system. Maintaining a healthy gut involves following a balanced diet, reducing stress, and incorporating probiotics into one's routine.

Gut microbiome

The gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health. The foods that a person eats can have a significant impact on the composition and diversity of their gut microbiome. A dietitian can help individuals maintain a healthy gut microbiome by identifying foods that are particularly beneficial for the gut microbiome, developing personalized meal plans, and recommending the use of probiotics and other supplements.


Health At Every Size (HAES) is a movement and approach to health that emphasizes body diversity and promotes overall well-being through self-care behaviors, such as mindful eating, joyful movement, and stress management, without a focus on weight loss or achieving a particular body size or shape. It recognizes that health and well-being are multi-dimensional and that people of all sizes can pursue healthy behaviors and achieve optimal health outcomes.


HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, is a type of lipoprotein that helps to remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. High levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.


A symptom of bipolar disorder. During an episode of hypomania, a person becomes much more active and energetic than normal. Hypomania is similar to mania, but less severe.


The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a system used by healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide to classify and code medical conditions, diseases, injuries, and causes of death. It is an essential tool for public health and medical research, and is regularly updated to reflect advances in medical knowledge and changes in disease patterns.


Impulsiveness is a personality trait characterized by acting on sudden desires without considering the potential consequences. It can lead to negative outcomes in various aspects of life, including relationships, financial decisions, and eating habits.

Intuitive eating

Intuitive eating is an approach to eating that involves listening to your body's hunger and fullness cues, and honoring your cravings and preferences without guilt or shame. It focuses on nourishing your body, finding satisfaction in your meals, and developing a positive relationship with food and your body.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. It can be managed through lifestyle changes, diet modification, stress management, and medication, and a dietitian can help by developing a personalized eating plan and providing education on improving gut health.

Keto diet

The keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that aims to switch the body's primary fuel source from glucose to ketones. It has gained popularity in recent years due to its potential benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cholesterol levels, but may have potential health risks and should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional.


LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, which is a type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol and other lipids from the liver to different parts of the body. High levels of LDL can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the arteries, which increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Mental Health Act

The Mental Health Act is a legal framework that governs the treatment, care, and rights of people with mental health disorders in certain countries. It allows for the detention and involuntary treatment of individuals with severe mental health disorders in certain circumstances, while also outlining procedures to safeguard their legal rights and autonomy.

Monounsaturated fat

Monounsaturated fats are a type of dietary fat that contain one double bond in their molecular structure. They are found in foods such as olive oil, avocado, nuts, and seeds, and can contribute to improved heart health and reduced inflammation when consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Mood disorder

Mood disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant and persistent changes in a person's emotional state, including depression, mania, or a combination of both. These changes can impact a person's daily life and can also affect their eating habits and nutrition.


In this conversation, we discussed nausea, its causes, and treatments. Nausea is a common symptom of many conditions and can be caused by several factors, including food choices and sensitivities. Treatment of nausea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, or natural remedies like ginger.


Nutrition is the study of how food affects the body and encompasses the type, amount, and timing of food intake. Proper nutrition is essential for overall health and wellness and can play a critical role in the prevention and management of many chronic health conditions.

Nutritional supplements

Nutritional supplements are products containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other dietary substances that may be missing from an individual's diet or needed in greater quantities. They can offer potential benefits for overall health, but also pose potential risks, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.


A person who helps people form healthy eating habits to improve health and prevent disease. They may provide nutritional counseling, meal planning, and nutrition education programs. Nutritionists may also look at how the environment affects the quality and safety of food and how it may affect health.


Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) used to describe a group of eating disorders that do not meet the full criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder. OSFED includes a range of disordered eating behaviors that can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual's life.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition characterized by persistent, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) that cause significant distress and interfere with daily life. Effective treatments for OCD include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and, in some cases, neurostimulation.

Occupational therapist

An occupational therapist is a healthcare professional who helps individuals of all ages and abilities develop, regain, or maintain the skills they need for daily living and working, such as self-care, work, and leisure. They use a client-centered approach to identify a person's goals and needs, and then design and implement interventions to improve their physical, cognitive, or emotional abilities, and promote their engagement in daily activities.


Orthorexia is a disordered eating pattern characterized by an excessive preoccupation with eating healthy food or a rigid adherence to strict diets. It can lead to social isolation, anxiety, and physical health problems if the diet is not balanced and lacks important nutrients.

Out of pocket expenses

Out-of-pocket expenses are the direct costs that an individual pays for healthcare services or products that are not covered by insurance, such as deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and other fees. They are an important consideration for individuals to manage their healthcare costs and make informed decisions about their medical care.

Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are a type of dietary fat that contain two or more double bonds in their molecular structure. They are considered essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet, and are found in foods such as fatty fish, nuts and seeds, vegetable oils, and avocado.


Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. It is a warning sign that if left untreated, type 2 diabetes may develop, but with lifestyle changes and management, the onset of diabetes can often be delayed or prevented.

Prenatal depression

Prenatal depression is a mood disorder that occurs during pregnancy and affects approximately 10% of pregnant women. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and other symptoms that can have a negative impact on both the mother and the developing fetus and can be treated through therapy, medication, and support from loved ones.


Probiotics are live microorganisms that are beneficial for health when consumed in adequate amounts. They can help improve digestion, boost immune function, reduce inflammation, and support overall health and wellness.


A referral is a formal letter from one health professional to another. It usually has information about your condition or symptoms and a specific request for assistance. This could be for a test, diagnosis, assessment or treatment.


Reflux, also known as acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux (GER), is a condition where the contents of the stomach, including stomach acid, flow back into the esophagus due to the weakening or relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as heartburn, regurgitation, difficulty swallowing, and chest pain, and can lead to complications if left untreated.

Registered Dietitian

A health professional who has special training in diet and nutrition. Registered dietitians offer advice on nutrition and healthy eating habits to help people improve their health and well-being.


Taking care of your own physical and mental health. Self care could involve exercise, eating well, relaxing and doing things you enjoy.


A doctor who has done extra training to become an expert in an area of medicine. Examples of specialists are psychiatrists (mental health), paediatricians (child health) and cardiologists (heart health).

Stomach pain

Stomach pain, also known as abdominal pain, is a general term that refers to discomfort or pain in the area between the chest and the pelvis. The pain can be sharp, dull, intermittent, or constant, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or gas.


A symptom is a sign or feeling or sign of illness.


Telehealth is the use of technology, such as video conferencing, telephonic conversations, and remote monitoring devices, to provide medical services and information remotely. The goal of telehealth is to improve access to healthcare services, reduce costs, and improve patient outcomes.


A therapist is a trained healthcare professional who provides support, guidance, and evidence-based interventions to individuals, couples, families, or groups who are experiencing emotional, psychological, or behavioral issues. Through a collaborative and individualized approach, therapists aim to help their clients overcome challenges, build resilience, and achieve personal growth and well-being.


A trigger in the context of health refers to something that causes a physical or emotional response in a person, particularly in the context of a specific condition or disorder. To manage food triggers, strategies such as keeping a food diary, avoiding known triggers, eating regular balanced meals, managing stress, and consulting a healthcare professional can be helpful.


Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood that are used by your body as a source of energy and stored in fat cells. High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems, but can be managed and lowered through dietary changes with the help of a registered dietitian.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a deficiency of insulin. This results in high blood sugar levels that can cause a range of health problems, and typically requires insulin therapy, blood sugar monitoring, and lifestyle modifications for treatment.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance or a reduced ability to produce insulin. It is the most common type of diabetes.

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the large intestine and rectum, causing inflammation, ulcers, and irritation. It results from an abnormal immune response that attacks the colon's lining and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and weight loss.


Veganism is a lifestyle and dietary choice that involves abstaining from the use of animal products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey. It is often adopted for ethical, health, or environmental reasons.


Vegetarianism is a dietary practice that involves avoiding the consumption of meat, fish, and poultry, and instead consuming plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. There are different types of vegetarian diets, including lacto-ovo vegetarianism, lacto-vegetarianism, ovo-vegetarianism, and veganism, each with its own variations on the exclusion of animal products.


Vomiting, also known as emesis, is a reflexive act of forcefully expelling the contents of the stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose, caused by a wide range of factors such as infections, motion sickness, pregnancy, medications, and psychological factors. Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms and may include rest, hydration, medications, dietary changes, home remedies, or medical interventions.

Withdrawal symptoms

Symptoms you get after stopping use of an addictive drug. They can include cravings, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, aches and pains, anxiety, insomnia, agitation and mood swings.